The labour force comprises all those who work for gain, whether as employees, employers, or as self-employed, and it includes the unemployed who are seeking work. Labour economics involves the study of the factors affecting… If labour could be measured adequately in simple homogeneous units of time, such as labour-hours, the problems of economics would be considerably simplified. But labourers differ in the amount and character of their training, in their degree of skill, intelligence, and capacity to direct their own work or the work of others, and in the other special aptitudes that they require. Tasks differ in their irksomeness, in the prospects that they offer for permanent employment and advancement, in the social status associated with them, and in other characteristics that make one task more attractive than another.
Some of the conclusions are: Unions reduce wage inequality because they raise wages more for low- and middle-wage workers than for higher-wage workers, more for blue-collar than for white-collar workers, and more for workers who do not have a college degree.
Strong unions set a pay standard that nonunion employers follow. The impact of unions on total nonunion wages is almost as large as the impact on total union wages.
The most sweeping advantage for unionized workers is in fringe benefits. Unionized workers receive more generous health benefits than nonunionized workers. Unionized workers receive better pension plans. Because unionized workers are more informed, they are more likely to benefit from social insurance programs such as unemployment insurance and workers compensation.
Unions are thus an intermediary institution that provides a necessary complement to legislated benefits and protections. The union wage premium It should come as no surprise that unions raise wages, since this has always been one of the main goals of unions and a major reason that workers seek collective bargaining.
How much unions raise wages, for whom, and the consequences of unionization for workers, firms, and the economy have been studied by economists and other researchers for over a century for example, the work of Alfred Marshall. Table 1 provides several estimates of the union hourly wage premium based on household and employer data from the mid- to late s.
All of these estimates are based on statistical analyses that control for worker and employer characteristics such as occupation, education, race, industry, and size of firm.
Therefore, these estimates show how much collective bargaining raises the wages of unionized workers compared to comparable nonunionized workers. The data most frequently used for this analysis is the Current Population Survey CPS of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is most familiar as the household survey used to report the unemployment rate each month.
The CPS reports the wages and demographic characteristics age, gender, education, race, marital status of workers, including whether workers are union members or covered by a collective bargaining contract, and employment information e.
Using these data, Hirsch and Macpherson found a union wage premium of Another important source of workplace information, employer surveys, has advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, wages, occupation, and employer characteristics—including the identification of union status—are considered more accurate in employer-based data.
The disadvantage is that data from employers do not include detailed information about the characteristics of the workers e. Pierce a used the new Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of employers, the National Compensation Survey, to study wage determination and found a union wage premium of Since unions have a greater impact on benefits than wages see Freemanestimates of the union premium for wages alone are less than estimates of the union premium for all compensation wages and benefits combined.
A study by Pierce estimates the union premium for wages at A later section reviews the union impact on specific fringe benefits such as paid leave, health insurance, and pensions.Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress.
INRODUCTION The main focus of this paper is to make a critical analysis of the statement made by the late President Sir Seretse Khama when he spoke about trade union in his country in the - Introduction Labor unions are a heavily debated topic throughout the world, particularly in the United States (US).
The first know labor union. Directory of State LMI Agencies. Click on any state below to view the information for that state. States shown in red are current members of the LMI Institute.
Unions have a substantial impact on the compensation and work lives of both unionized and non-unionized workers. This report presents current data on unions’ effect on wages, fringe benefits, total compensation, pay inequality, and workplace protections.
Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules; Performance Budget Justification; No Fear Act; Topic Results for What's the Law?
It is unlawful for a labor union to restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights. For example, you may not restrict employee-members' freedom to resign from the union, or fine an employee. The Midterm Elections are fast approaching.
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