One out of every six women will be raped during her lifetime.
In France, for instance, a "battered" husband was trotted around town riding a donkey backwards while holding its tail. In England, "abused" husbands were strapped to a cart and paraded around town, all the while subjected to the people's derision and contempt.
Although the patriarchal view supporting a husband's complete dominance of his wife persisted into Courtship violence twentieth century E.
Pleck,during the latter half of this century, we find a definite shift in people's attitudes toward marital relationships. As a result, terms like "domestic violence," "domestic abuse," and "battered wife" have found their way into our everyday speech.
Finally, society seems to be taking the issue of domestic violence against women seriously and looking for solutions to stem if not to end the violence. Most of the early research dealing with domestic violence focused solely on the female victims and the social factors that supported the victimization of women Smith, Such research has had a significant impact upon the evolution of recent changes in civil law, enforcement of criminal law, and the ways law enforcement and social agencies respond to the needs of battered wives see Victim Support, As noted in the opening section, finding evidence that society in centuries past found it necessary to punish men who did not uphold the patriarchal way suggests previous recognition that a husband could be assaulted or dominated by his wife.
In recent years though, such a possibility has found little support or credence.
Rather, the view of husband-as-victim of domestic violence is more likely a subject of cartoons Saenger, or of jokes about "hen-pecked" husbands Wilkinson, A number of factors apparently are stoking the debate.
Among those most often cited are the relative numbers of male versus female victims, the methods used to determine whether or not male victimization has occurred, and the nature and context Courtship violence female violence.
With respect to this last factor, the nature and context of female violence, the debate has widened to include whether the violence perpetrated by a woman against a man is motivated solely in terms of self-defense from either actual or possible bodily threat, whether the violence perpetrated by a woman against a man is in retaliation to previous victimization by a male partner, and whether the resulting injury inflected on a man by a woman is comparable to that inflicted on a woman by a man.
With respect to the first issue much of the data available on domestic violence in the United States, for instance, indicates that, as Mildred Daley Pagelow argues, females far outnumber males in terms of being the victims of violence. Such is also the conclusion of a literature review prepared for the United Kingdom's Home Office Smith, Given that most studies suggest that domestic violence is exclusively perpetrated by men against women and propose theoretical frameworks to account for this unilateral condition, men who experience unilateral violence at the hands of their wives or female partners have been all but neglected.
Dismissed by the argument that few men are actually the victim of spousal abuse or that these few were in all probability men in denial of their own abuse complaining of their spouses' self-defense needs, the experiences of such men have warranted sparse academic concern. Another feature preventing serious attention toward the issue of battered men is the belief that studies of battered women will suffice to provide a background for understanding male victims.
Further, it has been suggested that in those very few cases of battered men that their social and legal needs are already met within the context of present and available social and legal provisions Pagelow, Davidson, personal communication, April, ; ; Kirsta, ; Lewin, ; E. Pizzey, personal communication, December, Further, I argue that more research is needed to help define the similarities and differences between male and female victims of domestic violence.
The contention that the numbers of battered men in society are very small and thus present an anomaly to the general thinking that women are the only "legitimate" subject of domestic violence is denied. The fact is that taking a serious look at the phenomenon of battered men may actually be a necessary next step to help "de-contaminate" the study of domestic violence Note 1.
Extrapolating from a small scale study, Steinmetz suggested that the incidence of "husband beating" rivaled the incidence of "wife battering" and that it was husband abuse, not wife abuse, that was a largely underreported form of domestic violence.
Her claims received considerable media attention in the United States and elsewhere, but she was savagely attacked for misreading, misinterpreting, and misrepresenting her findings by opponents. Pagelow, for one, criticized Steinmetz's evidence on a number of grounds, for instance, the use of aggregate, as opposed to couple samples.
Further, she noted that Steinmetz's work did not address the context in which women were the perpetrators of violence, namely, "self-defense. For instance, Murray Straus, Richard Gelles, and Suzanne Steinmetz estimated that about one in eight men in the United States acted violently during marital conflict.
However, they estimated a similar number of women also acted violently during marital conflict. With respect to serious violence, as judged by the Conflict Tactics Scales Note 2these authors stated that the rate for men beaten by their wives was 4.
In a later article, Straus and Gelles reviewed both their own and other studies in the United States and reported somewhat equivalent assault rates for both male-to-female and female-to-male.
In their survey, Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz estimated that approximately 38 out of every families experience severe husband-to-wife violence, while 46 out of every l families experience severe wife-to-husband violence.The Journal of Men's Studies, Volume 3, Number 2, November , p.
Riding the Donkey Backwards: Men as the Unacceptable Victims of Marital Violence. Domestic Violence Resources. National Hotlines & Resources | State Hotlines | Fact Sheet | DOJ Violence Against Women Site.
Domestic Violence Facts. Domestic violence is both a national and a worldwide crisis. According to a UNICEF study, % of the female population of the world will become the victims of domestic violence Abstract.
Recent concern with family violence has focused on child abuse and wife battering, while other forms have been relatively neglected.
A need to recognize and focus on violence that occurs during the dating and courtship period is suggested. Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
A courtship may be an informal and private matter between two people or may be a public affair, or a formal arrangement with family approval. Childhood experiences have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong health and opportunity.
More. Dating abuse or dating violence is defined as the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship.