Although he wrote extensively, Kierkegaard employed the rhetorical device of irony so successfully that it is difficult to be sure what views he would have defended seriously. Approaching the work through some of his self-conscious reflections upon the task may prove helpful. At first, one might be inclined to accept Kierkegaard's straightforward declaration that his entire career as an author is nothing more than an earnest desire to achieve worldly fame. But even this appears in a work he published pseudonymously!
His life was punctuated by a troubled devotion to his father. A engagement to Regina Olsen was broken for unclear reasons: Other significant events include his graduate studies in seminary and his disputes with a tabloid periodical. Other significant self-descriptors include, "Alas I was never young," "What I am to do or be, not what I am to know.
The transition from one stage to another is accomplished by an act of will, a choice, or a "leap" of faith. Aesthetic or First Stage is a dimension of existence as an overall life-style of living by means of the immediate or sensual self-dispersal and impulsive action.
The capacity of living in the moment without reflection is immediacy. The lack of reflection in decisions is similar here to the naivety of children.
But this stage also includes speculative intellectualism. Hence the aesthetic stage is the style of the hedonist as well as the practice of the detached Hegelian rationalist who avoids life through his love of reflection.
The presence of the enjoyment of desires exemplifies the lack of commitment to ideals. To avoid boredom, the rotation method of activities must be employed. This stage implies the right relation of forgetfulness and remembrance while drifting through arbitrary actions.
In the aesthetic stage the individual is essentially uncommitted, detached, and an on-looker. The qualities of this stage include sensualism, aestheticism, and speculativism.
Examples of the aesthetic stage include Difficulties with the aesthetic stage include the internal contradiction between, first, impulse and planning and, second, spontaneity and planning for future possibilities. Although the aesthetic stage is like playing a game successfully, one cannot derive existence out of that game.
The thinker seeks values in what he knows, and the hedonist seeks value in what is sensed. Boredom results—self-awareness is lacking in the presence of pure immediacy.
The absence of the mediation of self-reflection results in boredom not only with the activity but also boredom with self.
Finally, despair results as the recognition of complete self-dispersal—what Kierkegaard terms "the death instinct," "the sickness unto death," or the unwillingness to be oneself. Ethical or Second Stage arises as one accepts ethical principles and the consequent obligations by means of reason and so achieves a sense of authenticity, duty, and commitment.
After the first stage, a sense of "infinite resignation" leads to a sense of "eternal validity" achievable by resolute decision and commitment to duty. Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do and die, Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred.
Kierkegaard mentions the state of marriage, the tragic hero expressing the universal action, the invocation of the golden rule, as well as the Philistine who pretends he is devoted to narrow and practical aims. Difficulties with the ethical stage arise in several in several different ways.
Inability to obey the rules or laws and consciousness of sin lead to the inability to be consistently oneself. Conflicts of duties arise within the application of codes of behavior. The concrete individual cannot be caught in the net of a system; moral laws are like the abstract formulas of science.
The problem is that objectivity of ethics implies the individual as an observer who lives his life as history or natural science. Life can become pointlessly a "going through the motions" "Lament" by Edna St.
Vincent Millay expresses the emptiness of the ethical stage: Life must go on, And the dead be forgotten; Life must go on.Kierkegaard's Objective and Subjective Truths. Topics: Truth, Subjective or Objective Morality on Campus LVE /5/24 Introduction The question of morality is objective or subjective has been arguing for centuries.
People who hold different perspectives stand on different sides. emphasise the importance of subjective truth over it, at least so far as in the truths that are most influential in a person’s life (and hence for Kierkegaard, in the sphere of religion).
In this essay, I will discuss the relationship between objective and subjective truth and how if one exists without the other, it results in madness. In Kierkegaard’s piece about the subjectivity of truth, he brings up the point that subjective truth taken to it’s extreme becomes indistinguishable from madness.
Kierkegaard and Truth as Subjectivity 1 Stephen James Minton "So it goes on, and once I’m dead, men’s eyes will be opened; they will admire what I emphasise the importance of subjective truth over it, at least so far as in the truths that are most influential in a person’s life (and hence for Kierkegaard, in the sphere of.
The difference between objective (or Socratic) truth and subjective truth is the appropriation process of making the paradox one's own.
Thinking about it doesn't get in the way of arrogation. Kierkegaard's "paradox" is a precursor of the notion of the "absurd" in later existential thought. A survey of the history of Western philosophy. What is at stake here is Kierkegaard's theoretical distinction between objective and subjective truth, worked out in the Afsluttende Uvidenskabelig Efterskrift (Concluding Unscientific Postscript) () to the Philosophical caninariojana.comered objectively, truth merely seeks attachment to the .