Reactivity of halides lab

Universal Indicator paper about 2 cm strips3 Optional: Chlorine water, Cl2 aq.

Reactivity of halides lab

Do You Get a Carbocation? Although there is sometimes confusion about the differences between SN1 and SN2 reactions, you should know that they are essentially the same reaction: In an SN1 reaction a carbocation is formed: In an SN2 reaction no carbocation is formed: All of the differences between SN1 and SN2 reactions stem from these two facts!

Reactions of halogens (as aqueous solutions) Halogens undergo redox reactions with metal halides in solution, displacing less reactive halogens from their compounds. These displacement reactions are used to establish an order of reactivity down Group 17 of the periodic table. Lab Report: Alkyl Halide Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment. Total word count: Time spent researching and writing: 4 hrs Lab Conclusion: Alkyl Halide Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment. The actual results correlated somewhat to the predicted reactivity of the alkyl halides. In the S N 1 reactions, all products were formed. It was predicted that three of the alkyl halides would not precipitate, namely . Chem L Laboratory Report Reactivity of Some Alkyl Halides. Experiment # 21 Reactivity of Some Alkyl Halides I. Introduction: To understand the reactivity of alkyl halides in nucleophilic substitution reactions 1/5(1).

Let me rephrase what I just said: Most of the differences between SN1 and SN2 reactions relate to carbocation formation. Factors that are good for carbocations are also good for SN1.

Factors that are bad for carbocations are also bad for SN1 tend to favor SN2. The others are much simpler.

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In an SN1 reaction the first step is the formation of a carbocation. On the other hand, in SN2 reactions the nucleophile attacks at the same time as the leaving group leaves: The carbon gets crowded. So to because of crowding, SN2 reactions work best on the least substituted alkyl halides: The effects of crowding are also called steric effects or just sterics for short.

The Effect of Solvent Protic vs. Aprotic Solvents Protic solvents are capable of hydrogen bonding. Carbocations are stabilized in solvents that can hydrogen bond, and so SN1 reactions proceed best in polar protic solvents.

Reactivity of halides lab

This blocks the nucleophile from entering and the leaving group from leaving the molecule. What does it take to hydrogen bond?

A hydrogen atom directly attached to an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom.

Periodic Properties of the Halogens - Chemistry Lab Manual

Below are common protic and aprotic solvents. The Effect of Temperature Temperature is a term to describe the average kinetic energy of a system- how fast molecules are moving. The higher the temperature the more often molecules will bump into each other and so the more likely a reaction is to happen.

Also, a higher temperature means the system can more readily overcome the activation energy Ea required to start the reaction.When I − was mixed with both Cl 2 and Br 2 the halogens were oxidized and became halides while the I became I 2.

And nothing added to I 2 changed the contents of the test tube at all. The results of the lab do not agree with prediction because the periodic property of electronegativity is that it decreases in a group as atomic number increases. Lab Report: Alkyl Halide Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment.

Total word count: Time spent researching and writing: 4 hrs Lab Conclusion: Alkyl Halide Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment. The actual results correlated somewhat to the predicted reactivity of the alkyl halides.

In the S N 1 reactions, all products were formed. It was predicted that three of the alkyl halides would not precipitate, namely . Reactions of halogens (as aqueous solutions) Halogens undergo redox reactions with metal halides in solution, displacing less reactive halogens from their compounds.

These displacement reactions are used to establish an order of reactivity down Group 17 of the periodic table. Likewise, you will be able to arrange the halides in order of their relative reactivity as reducing agents.

To determine if a reaction proceeds or not, we will use visual clues from the color of the halogens to differentiate which halogen is present in your final reaction.

Reactivity of halides lab

Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl Halides. Submitted by Matt on July 19, The Lab Procedures and What to Expect; The Big Difference Between S N 1 and S N 2: So for this reason 3° alkyl halides undergo S N 1 reactions faster than 2° . Reactivity of Halide Ions lab Trends: The atomic number increases.

In this lab it is shown how 6 different halides react when 4 different compounds are added. perhaps it was a mixture of the halide KBr with another halide.

Chem - Week VII